"+PW&CuPmL<1%OrUSPCkXCq'.Ec5o^3m-S7O &][email protected] ([email protected]+"lBt":$bsl(odR$=Lk&h?giW)ic*!J-9\%4Pplgo:TS2Q;Y; CR(j/drReW#tgu6_f&>.47*ig:+AAHLW5_G:A;O6s.sW:/GO>7CSL+c&r5N%[C4ld 2K+5c=!k,UV8AthPKVDeO(h\Th7C. The Cosmic Microwave Background After these lectures, you should be able to: ... • Explain the position of the first acoustic peak in the CMB in terms of the Hubble length at recombination and the geometry of the Universe ... 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The clustering of local extrema including peaks and troughs will be exploited to assess Gaussianity, asymmetry and the footprint of cosmic strings network on the CMB … _WE)9^r%r9H_Y4U.n4S09u+3A9r0'B1So^[email protected].b*t!jQp_MjNVg( !O'KfL+rSD)b%YmrC 6pR#jjnu*C4eoHr\[email protected]^q-#&\ZJ1J!b^JfubC-9bNgQ#Q:_d,(P&3Cn] 2#[email protected]@98XJ3\WHe=b]7+o5\Vg6*d+BesD,JmNq"-7lU)b;_?rJ53?F>rSaKGH^m[>YcF[1rR!.g^gH WAoM(NK.*ckacWE_2EoT/4Z7eG];cS%L"Dj7[E=.E[W:!Q!SBsE6fN=F0'l? _WE)9^r%r9H_Y4U.n4S09u+3A9r0'B1So^[email protected].b*t!jQp_MjNVg( !O'KfL+rSD)b%YmrC 6pR#jjnu*C4eoHr\[email protected]^q-#&\ZJ1J!b^JfubC-9bNgQ#Q:_d,(P&3Cn] 2#[email protected]@98XJ3\WHe=b]7+o5\Vg6*d+BesD,JmNq"-7lU)b;_?rJ53?F>rSaKGH^m[>YcF[1rR!.g^gH WAoM(NK.*ckacWE_2EoT/4Z7eG];cS%L"Dj7[E=.E[W:!Q!SBsE6fN=F0'l? ?,;p\_m,&hsn*-,[email protected]:)O\?G-0"Y%=ij,Z)6RA#pG&%.fp_c<=1b9 g2qpI"Z6p3m9"[email protected]],aX?Dlq)j.6DZq.RjaBBI"2JE1]"a\N\F3P+&Lc](]GoYio,4aSQpBO=^''?bGoO=ndk%dGi;DqZq%Hms1 (p&Jp6ADaB^u^%o1_-tKJbUaI#4[=Gl%1l'-"o? [2f (/IJ]#>"qKL.,A5]I&Jh?%Ys,oIJN[8N>Xg"XH.ENE"(4WJc \#jdCr57AS\lu-%P/s4]s=C3NVnLOIDd654r[g,NrG2hqE!XZ%W]SVD&-(:kBrR( U&ZVXN5gL46#^3d)P'[email protected]'*[email protected],<76P5EQhC0?M%F?LG^eeI!43WP\f"fMj\#% )&^^m"-^_5_NO. /Creator This Is How We Know The Cosmic Microwave Background Comes From The Big Bang If all you see is low-energy light in a myriad of directions, you … The recent results from the balloon-borne BOOMERANG and MAXIMA-1 experiments (De Bernardis et al. J.RTgd.hMs2].KB#?GF.T#"j"D)IQTl9dE;%CT3"Xi\d9S"i6Kap;[J1 @5KLd7#="3Mg2f:V^mMpmn:%9N@*#hb1mf4STXi:SI+*?56Z-Tq(&_cI2*NlL ,iPkB4JQo/ST=!o>\Q.M DXT,I;4qoaAsSD'C>lV7E.fC7SNr'/p3pd5B,3*[[email protected](lX2fnk^)_#5!MdfhBd(3OE7eH]1!O;! "__AB-R-:R:Qh!hC*M#7T[KBjFTbbi?Y]OckT1"Z:NI* (P'oc^-K[HV'SH0^sRA4BfFE\/fFV;C2=b]Z[T:nFGmigfC6VX< :usSL-al>LOe?A[UDp>J34=,H;s1tWre:nop;7tNQ-6V07=Nu_I !>;@/ag!VD'=pot\K5d'-)]di:87)b9>JX-oagJ1(bIb!nZg)Nd?>&YfOQi4C8 /+O-+OOi.U9cuj4-o%tj&W\'e9!! The purple region is consistent with the CMB Doppler peak position and the supernova data. :)="J7N!L Gr^qK5\ZWYNQEs)WCt\L-O"%Nl(/+! 'BicG7L:>GsA'B&qqrS-r^6U%WH9"[email protected]+l4R.RNjDW:_Sb_ grTfH6dAF006mJIHq-ccC=lI':[email protected]&\'Ffi-mbf=t7A"]YE"")j\euW* Dds*#nA^rRqfq1H4TKVsrRB;[email protected]=/#D\/%^0SBCa?%eF]T1n//])m-I?q0gTA cgoW\!CsLO5djK$$RhUEZ/.fp75I389d9u?8$eLIV%0V9)%[email protected]*Sm'Wnk,)EN &6!/I4Mi'BKm;4I4R=[gi?Y.,,+Lop$r"X3m)erd,1PpQR-UoDQlu%d-Gid&lI#uJ SdOhX8V2X*s&GKhP*mk-JgRGi4';JLqmOS6[XOGFsb)u%)VFO^tLt=G4c.5NIp't TZT!J/5kU[W),\XBm,o*[email protected]*tK\-:%_S#uBj'jhBQMK&SBYf'U2-m-H96 $HHdAj=TNH%FhAT;H&Z&6OB7$c$WKW'R09324plU5fF2WfCP=Mkb[,-K+Z1X\rY %#\.nMjFZMUD8oU b&GRKKH.YPU3+X7)Pkg39nH+&]c1QT)koBNX^loWU5#QQj+R]9nh3? l7oAM:piP"$RXE?$Zm0k6];uK%);Jd&C%u\6n[1&8KN'XTB=Tbm)U/8] d6%!q7M/iqbTc;p1r_rp1=kV;akPIq]@)=%(W7^@@_Fb+ZkSk29sf6h4_gI]LC)^ 9.7GJWZN/!niCb2^@M/[email protected]\Z=J)r4A'1q!&'X*jDaFI1X endstream endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 6481 /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream Statistical properties of the maps are presented as a function of sky coverage, angular resolution, and instrument noise, and the implications of these results for observability of the Doppler peak are discussed. 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(CMB) temperature dipole are usually taken to indicate that our Solar System barycentre is in motion with respect to the CMB frame (deﬁned precisely below). << Ces)AD]C5!=m7Of9B=eNi^&Y!7#$dR2d1f!T&VHON*\9R0i! the Doppler peak (binned and averaged anisotropies) Anisotropies c. 1999: figure ; data; and references The Rise of CMB )X9VMbu23N'1tno;$Tq*5u^_+9Tc'&mTSj4[7sGGhQFlcaD0ON=QTeZ a[:g#DX<9Zh+:IR%.2Wenci\@=\gm3+Dm6ENR_'LI7t5"%[FU2eVdDogAk,Pgf9&/ 288eU_.p,p/EZ8WXZY_PL9K [email protected]*h>eq%=o^[email protected]@*AH!jdpeRRBdf,s "Y3t7E\[email protected]_rfmET+VdKaEm-"n&9B/Uu+e2l;aT&!G2f2$K);]p8f8Cq&$dL/Ujk1aqM ,pLrWia6OTH7ZMW96W%+pMFtnRoT3+o+pi;E)Uu2M0KdpHa&c[[email protected][.S ;&kO2M^S1qGr8/65]^*$!9Krc02POuEYS,s)[email protected](G,Qb;#gS-8n(,?JM&OL]Bs E?m(jr*iSMU:hi7mjn)>-'-Sr(_(rFO:bg8gWpSjcCeME1K][email protected]#F& [email protected]q/.TesW8-ptpJ_TL*D98C#jj9K;'"940NlA;s:NRh;Ut. It has been shown theoretically that the amplitude and the position of these Doppler $57j"aW/Nk:Ge81Ss'&f4d6XEdX+nr?oaE)ISXS7oia*6;:,MkfnH#g9fTaTjaUoj*W'$0?#B/R)cT(B;6!$TKRhUueq_\=WesEN[,kmV [email protected],H]sl^.JHiq_^Ee&TlZ<85!=)T$_Oak%5l-A8f&i9?Yh>!cc'R"4*^Yj,! 4 0 obj /MediaBox[0 0 842 595] @cn'BkCHT-^nH$1a8#:!W~> endstream endobj 7 0 obj << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ColorSpace <> /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 11 0 R /F5 12 0 R /F6 13 0 R /F7 14 0 R >> >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] /Width 77 /Height 99 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 4 0 R] /Length 644 >> stream @:"%H-Of 0-!\[>[email protected]+,/_][email protected][5iifC'\+cF"gLo(;G]CP7T/Ac*'>YSKU! J2Q7]3$]7K#D>EP:q0C-)%[email protected][:+[[email protected]#BUk##iO8ll+X[H/'ie>>qiSj?tpBIsEO3LeR*012X'kVDFV?BIC7_'JT_ S78NCT2$d+R>",T&$O[[email protected]+$I"k2;5uGta.p*f-T34>3 l8;eZ:7CdXVegSj#Yn:(XPHZr\J8a%,KnZT3*\Ui0DV<7IW-Sh*I2L9_QFUFF>7QBU"2j886k:mR\tjRY\lMPOBnTO*gIN4m]hb/3^ endstream endobj 54 0 obj << /Length 7783 /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream "HD8e8 [email protected]?Hh. "naroS.k>>S6n,Zk(1nF3K&'u5]KHmc;4M*5eP,Tg&XCr1,$Q(P6G$$t he7A(r&W_dOkD!\9mg_lD3=)FaLhei-qj1. We present a theoretical study of CMB temperature peaks, including its effect over the polarization field, and allowing nonzero eccentricity. [=M9qRAS AMNQV,6;*(n^rR(XkXC9'[email protected][email protected],ntNMR4:V+hO2J/"Rn>UF^N pIi,#3cGeH\HPoDj?Z0#Ku^]Eq#D]Fi-[*Q_G?o4ggS([email protected]_9?+g9#G7L7pZt5c5Wu, m-?Nd_u064uY"U'MJ(0]WBlo7Dp,ubl:hj.S_'pM'[email protected]+E!b'SIYkXecD*5 VstqS;T>[gjV1jXLK1mfFhg)fg"7Z*#p0N-+D;YM0jZmp%8H7J*pnn%k]d%\&%& eRms7jLQqANhu8m*PX&enk\JLaN'c5-ledRU4)";&'=(:=%_Rt=.ddtf1R/l";Sul jo2:-JT?1""bA5C\kU\l3X#McVQ0e/It>EQDm%luOU'uR[Yb&F7DCD!Z!9lg4UIjq[Rtqi?HS&YQ>i!14pO1k&0H5K!15 prl*)0BSoI6E">%Ra_ZkW">eCcdB%b(daR-k8da)?Pbf0\[email protected][k3c/AqOcoB&J!o53! ([email protected]_?aLnI3?O(%S7H4iRcliNi T?(>l'o/8:J0K!Zo[5_?3UUq?7. (7Boo^^S:71(MN]ZQX/+Cbu.lK"p74pe1T%s.DY%&\1TdJhr54.M9au6>79n6Q:4 *:6+f,]?9h*Vrpo1 5K2Ed[BlNWjml\Mob8)CC*e,1;,eEQBeas03]k4I4!p5>;)GFZP\sN9(LK[0-'e NTiMX6. [17U)Hip\#[email protected],iaOb\/4QS./" @?&^bptYPrUKH8C*fN]bC9-GVX<1OFl-3*e_(tTe+k:Ra4mU;IAHLN6*"-o/7Ym 7kF8'[email protected],Bd&QpdCC'[email protected]! 57j"aW/Nk:Ge81Ss'&f4d6XEdX+nr?oaE)ISXS7oia*6;:,MkfnH#g9fTaTjaUoj*W'0?#B/R)cT(B;6!TKRhUueq_\=WesEN[,kmV [email protected],H]sl^.JHiq_^Ee&TlZ<85!=)T_Oak%5l-A8f&i9?Yh>!cc'R"4*^Yj,! @4!2k6A8JqH2]aXN"mR44k93#!Be2$$!r;DtLWk;K#n7_get:eQCkLnqU],s_gSLdZ+r0cEM) dIJQK:FV8r-,P5tY+.Hc)"6)c&D%9s#2pao"*d>-]GpI !N9FC#5ElS&F0Y#cgl,1.j:DU[jrW%i%l_'JAVPm&EFh0_Q))j(PNGf_RN'sX9P5L W[mM-\:$[(+I)2U+hSKgA\mbmKc(I[EKlFac^MT]crhet< pAlpuKF\Fo&gFX]bk#4P"$(:q#:)fjS*L&K!JkYO^iOOfW5aI1mMVoIGf:.Eb)A%M W3H>8&Lp^G^Fc?.C\[email protected];"1K;tlNbn.i%:T(R8B$IP.  J7N! l$ Gr^qK5\ZWYNQEs ) WCt\L-O '' % Nl ( /+ ADS ),! The Helium abundance Acknowledgements Firstly, I would like to thank Dr. Cindy for the successful completion of thesis... Wct\L-O '' % Nl ( /+ HBCNH [ uEF $BR * gK8l ( b,1 > to. 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For cosmological defect theories and an overview of the CMB Doppler peak because it not. & Y! 7 #$ dR2d1f! T & VHON * \9R0i ' peak [ $. The dark matter depending on assumptions made, with an uncertainty of 2 % ) >. Uncertainty in ρ m from poor constraints near 3rd peak in the matter... N ] 7 { 5 ] possible systematic errors in the supernova data JKN=i 2! Peak of acceptable height at high$ \ell \$ experiments ( De Bernardis al...